Back in early days of wine drinking, wines came straight from the barrel to the table in an earthenware pitcher. While the ancient Romans introduced glass decanters, it wasn’t until the 17th Century that glass bottles became common and the art of decanting became more widespread.
Reason #1: To Remove Sediment
When: Decanting to remove sediment is most appropriate for older red wines and unfiltered wines.
When wine, especially red wine, is stored in bottles for a length of time visible particles, called sediment, can develop. Until more recent days wines were not filtered or only roughly filtered and as a result contained more sediment. Even today some wines are not filtered on purpose. Sediment can also occur in filtered wines when colour pigments and tannins (the astringent compound) combine. Potassium bitartrate (Cream of Tartar) occurs naturally in all wines, and after bottling can form crystals in the wine sometimes called “wine diamonds”. Although sediment is safe to drink it generally has a gritty texture and is not appealing.
When decanting to remove sediment, use a gentle touch and try not to disturb it! Your goal is to leave the sediment intact and in the bottle, not to spread it throughout the wine.
Reason #2: To Enhance Aromatics and Flavour
When: Decanting to increase the surface area and letting a wine ‘breathe’ is most applicable to younger wines..
Once a wine is bottled it is basically ‘closed up.' When you pour wine into a decanter, the agitation allows oxygen to mix with the wine. The result is three-fold: it helps release any dissolved gases such as nitrogen and carbon dioxide, opens up the aromas and flavours; and softens the harsh texture of tight, young tannins. Be vigourous when decanting to open up wine and let the wine splash around as it goes into the decanter.
Should You Decant White Wines?
Yes and no. Opinions within the wine industry are mixed about whether there is a benefit from decanting. Those who support decanting say it encourages wines to open up. However most everyday young whites do not need decanting and you do not need to worry about sediment or wine diamonds in white wine.
Is there a perfect (optimal) temperature for wine? Maybe not, but serving temperatures are often overlooked in the plans for a meal or an event where wine will be enjoyed. As a general rule of thumb, cooling wines makes them more refreshing but also dulls the aroma. In hot weather, particularly if you are sipping wine outdoors on the patio, you may want to sacrifice maximum flavour for the refreshing quality of a fully chilled white wine and a lightly chilled red.
White wines are often served too cold, which can make them seem less aromatic and more acidic.
Typically, more complex white wines such as barrel aged or fermented Chardonnay should be served slightly warmer at 10-13ºC. Lighter bodied and neutral white wines such as Riesling and Pinot Blanc benefit from more of a chill are are best served between 7 - 10ºC.
Refrigerators are commonly set at 4 to 5ºC so it a good practice to take white wines out of the fridge around 15 to 20 minutes before serving.
With the advent of state-of-the-art home heating systems, room temperatures have increase. In turn, red wines are often served slightly too warm which can make them seem flabby and less fresh.
Lighter reds are refreshing when served between 10-13°C and medium-bodied red wines are appropriately served between 13 and 16ºC. Serving bigger, bolder and more tannic red wines too chilled will make them more astringent and bitter. We recommend serving slightly below room temperature at 16-18ºC.
Placing most red wines in the fridge 15 to 20 minutes before serving will benefit both the wine and the drinker! Of course if you like your wine warmer or colder, don't forsake what you enjoy - after all you paid for it and you are consuming it!
All wine is stored at the same temperature, regardless of its color. But reds and whites are consumed at quite different temperatures. Too often people drink white wines too cold and red wines too warm, limiting how much you can enjoy the wine. A white that’s too cold will be flavorless and a red that’s too warm is often flabby and alcoholic.
With most of the summer fruit harvest complete, stone fruits are being replaced by apples and pears, which are considered pome fruits. If that term is not familiar, it refers to the family of fruits that have a core of several small seeds, surrounded by a tough membrane (pommes is the French word for apples). More than 15 varieties of apples are grown in Ontario along with five major varieties of pears, with Bartlett being the most popular. These fruits can be the perfect ingredients to a delicious autumn food and wine pairing! After all, what grows together goes together.
Oaked and Un-Oaked Chardonnay
Chardonnay is an ideal candidate to match with fresh orchard fruit. The aromas and flavours of Chardonnay are reminiscent of freshly picked/fallen fruit. Both unoaked and oaked versions can be wonderful matches for apples and pears. Fermenting or aging Chardonnay in oak barrels gives further complexity to the wine. These include elements of vanilla, coconut, nutmeg and cloves, which helps make Chardonnay compatible with a wide array of cooking methods, flavours and textures.
If you belong to the ABC School of wine enjoyment (Anything But Chardonnay), then Riesling is your answer! A noble, cool-climate grape, the quintessential characteristic of Niagara Riesling is fresh green apple and ripe, sweet pear. Rieslings pair well throughout the sunny, autumn evoking the orchard scents of freshly picked apples and pears! Dry Rieslings are extremely food-friendly wines.
Pome Fruit and Wine Match-Ups
Here are some examples of how Niagara apple dishes can be paired with Chardonnay and Riesling.
Company coming over? Start the festivities off right with a selection of locally sourced cured meats and a side of apple chutney. The acidity in the wine will help cut through the fat of the meats, while the saltiness will temper the crispness of the wine. The apple chutney will help pull all the flavours harmoniously together. Pair with the Strewn 2014 Riesling ($14.95 - Winery/Online).
Pork and apples are a classic combination Try roasted pork tenderloin with butter-sautéed Niagara apples. The perfect Strewn pairing: 2014 “Terroir” Chardonnay French Oak ($28 - Winery/Online).
Looking for a fabulous local dessert? The Wine Country Cooking School’s Apple Cider Cake uses both local apples and local cider to create a wonderfully moist cake that pairs delectably with the 2013 Select Late Harvest Riesling ($18.95 - Winery).
Need an autumn salad? When it comes to pears, roasted pears tossed with mixed greens, bleu haze (smoked blue cheese) and a grainy-mustard vinaigrette makes a fabulous and easy autumn salad. Match with a crisp Riesling such as Strewn’s 2015 Riesling Terroir.
Say Cheese - Bartlett pears are fantastic with a wide range of cheese. Top rich, creamy cheese with a generous slice of a Bartlett pear on a toasted baguette. Pair with Strewn’s popular Chardonnay Barrel Aged ($14.95 - Winery/LCBO). Bleu cheese, salted nuts and dried pears have also proved to be fantastic with aged Niagara Icewine. The perfect Strewn pairing: an award-winning, Riesling Icewine ($58 - Winery) - a match not to be missed!
Not a Fan of White? Pining for a Red?
Due to the inherent flavour profile and structure (mainly acidity) of apples and pears, sommeliers classically favour white wine pairings. However if your guests drink red wine only, lighter styles of Merlot or lighter Cabernets would work well in many of these cases. The TwoVines Cabernet/Merlot ($12.95 - Winery/Grocery Stores) and the 2013 Merlot Premium ($23 Winery/Online) are two reds that would be more than suitable for those pining for red wine.
Article originally written November 2015; wine matches updated May 3, 2017